The most popular soda ash to maintain industrial s

2022-08-01
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Soda ash: streamline the military and maintain industrial safety (I) production situation soda ash is an important basic chemical raw material. Soda ash industry plays an important role in promoting national economic development and improving people's living standards. It is widely used in glass industry, chemical products, detergent, alumina and other industries

the picture shows that the soda plant of Tangshan Sanyou Chemical Co., Ltd. is in operation. (Photo by Fu Dongying)

in recent 10 years, domestic soda ash production capacity and output have continued to grow at a high speed. In 2002, the capacity of soda ash was only 11million tons. In 2012, it reached 28.7 million tons, with an average annual growth rate of 10%. Among them, the capacity of combined alkali process is 14.4 million tons, accounting for 50% of the total capacity; The capacity of ammonia alkali process is 12.5 million tons, accounting for 44%; The capacity of natural alkali process is 1.8 million tons, accounting for 6%. According to the statistics of China Soda Ash Industry Association, the output of soda ash in 2012 was 24.01 million tons, an increase of 13.9 million tons over 2002, with an average annual growth rate of 9%. Among them, the output of combined alkali method is 12.02 million tons, accounting for 50% of the total output; The output of ammonia alkali method is 10.32 million tons, accounting for 43%; The output of natural alkali method is 1.67 million tons, accounting for 7%. Since 2003, China's soda ash production capacity and output have ranked first in the world, and its export volume is second only to the United States. In 2012, the domestic soda ash production capacity accounted for about 45% of the world's total production capacity, and the output accounted for about 42% of the world's total output

(II) consumption situation

in recent years, driven by the real estate, automobile and other industries, the domestic glass industry has developed vigorously, driving the consumption growth of soda ash. From 2002 to 2012, the domestic consumption of soda ash increased by 1.3 million tons annually, with an average annual growth rate of 9. 2%。 At present, 48% of domestic soda ash output is used to produce flat glass and daily-use glass, 20% is used to produce inorganic salt products, 5% is used to produce synthetic washing powder, 2% is used to produce alumina, 7% is used for export, and the remaining 18% is used to produce other industrial products and inventory

(III) enterprise organization structure and capacity distribution

at present, there are 44 soda ash production enterprises in China (53 sets of production units), accounting for more than half of the total number of soda ash enterprises in the world. Among them, there are 12 ammonia alkali enterprises, 31 United alkali enterprises and 1 natural alkali enterprise. The average scale of domestic soda ash enterprises is small and the polarization is serious. The scale of the largest enterprise is 3million tons/year, the smallest is only 30000 tons/year, and the average scale is about 650000 tons/year; There are 19 Enterprises with a production capacity of more than 600000 tons/year, accounting for 79% of the total production capacity; There are 9 enterprises between 300000 ~ 600000 T/A, accounting for 13% of the total production capacity; There are 16 enterprises less than 300000 t/A, accounting for only 8% of the total production capacity. Domestic soda ash enterprises are distributed in 22 provincial administrative regions, basically covering the national consumer market. Among them, the top five provinces of soda ash production capacity are Shandong, Jiangsu, Henan, Hebei and Qinghai, accounting for 64% of the total domestic production capacity. 6%。

(IV) process equipment

there are three domestic soda production processes: ammonia alkali process, combined alkali process and natural alkali process. Among them, ammonia alkali process is a traditional production process with good product quality and less investment per unit capacity, but the waste residue is large and difficult to handle, so it can only be stored for a long time; The combined alkali process is a unique production process in China. It has the advantages of low waste residue generation and high resource utilization efficiency. However, it needs to build a supporting ammonia plant with large investment. Most of the combined alkali enterprises are transformed from small chemical fertilizer plants. There are problems of weak technology and management and high consumption; The natural alkali process has the advantages of low cost and no pollution, but its production is restricted by the distribution of resources. Only one enterprise in China adopts the process with the dust emission concentration of 8mg/nm3~10mg/nm3

facing the severe market situation, the soda ash plant of Shandong Haihua Co., Ltd. took the lead in adopting the centrifugal dehydration technology in the same industry. On the original pressure filtration dehydration process unit, a new centrifuge with high-tech content was added to carry out the secondary centrifugal dehydration transformation. The water content of heavy alkali was reduced from the original 18% to less than 13% at present. 150 kg of medium pressure steam could be saved per ton of alkali, with remarkable results in energy saving, consumption reduction and cost reduction. The picture shows that the employees of the secondary centrifugal dehydration post are conducting patrol inspection and maintenance. (Photo by Zhang Qinye)

in recent years, China's soda ash enterprises have adopted a large number of new processes, new technologies, new equipment and new materials, which have greatly improved the overall technical equipment level of the industry: they have developed new shift gas soda making processes, uncooled carbonation processes, melamine tail gas soda making processes, salt alkali calcium recycling soda making processes and other new processes; Advanced energy-saving and emission reduction technologies with independent intellectual property rights have emerged, such as dry ash adding technology, vacuum distillation technology, ammonia alkali white mud desulfurization technology, calcium carbide slag refined brine technology, centrifuge for secondary filtration of heavy alkali, flue gas recycling technology, etc; The company has developed advanced equipment such as 65 square meters of horizontal belt type alkali filter, 650 cubic meters of carbon dioxide screw compressor and powder flow alkali cooler, and promoted the development of soda ash industry towards large-scale, automation and high efficiency

problems:

○ serious overcapacity

○ continuous expansion of losses

○ waste treatment restricts enterprise development

existing problems

(I) serious overcapacity, which has significantly exceeded sales

before 2008, the operating rate of the soda ash industry has been maintained at more than 90%. After 2008, due to the dual impact of the financial crisis and the rapid expansion of production capacity, the operating rate of the industry decreased by more than 10 percentage points, only 83% in 2012. At present, there are still a large number of soda ash production capacity under construction and planning in China: there are 11 projects under construction, with a total annual production capacity of 6.25 million tons, which is expected to be completed and put into operation in the next two years; There are 10 planned projects with a capacity of 7.4 million tons. If strict control measures are not introduced, it is estimated that by 2015, the capacity of soda ash will reach 34.95 million tons or more, while the demand can only be maintained at about 25million tons. When the above errors occur, the excess capacity will be 10million tons, and the operating rate is only 71%, which will have a huge negative impact on the development of national and local economies

(II) the loss area has expanded, threatening the industrial safety.

affected by overcapacity and market depression, the loss area of soda ash industry has continued to expand. In 2012, 83% of ammonia and alkali enterprises lost money, and the amount of loss reached 19. RMB 7.4 billion; 54。 8% of the soda enterprises suffered losses, and the amount of losses was 11. RMB 800million. After the break even, the whole industry suffered a total loss of 2billion yuan. In 2013, the soda ash market has not yet improved, and the loss of the enterprise continues to expand. As of june2013, the soda ash industry had suffered losses for 18 consecutive months, and 85% of the enterprises were in a state of loss, an increase of 24 percentage points over 2012. After the break even, the industry's loss reached 15. RMB 800million. It is estimated that in the second half of the year, the difficult situation will still be difficult to change. In the long run, a large number of soda ash enterprises will be forced to reduce or stop production, seriously threatening the safety of the soda ash industry

(III) the treatment of waste liquid and residue seriously restricts the development of ammonia alkali enterprises.

for every ton of soda ash produced by ammonia alkali process, about 10m3 of waste liquid and 300kg of waste residue will be produced. At present, most soda ash enterprises in the world mainly rely on discharging ammonia alkali waste liquid into the sea and stacking ammonia alkali waste residue. With the improvement of production and living environment, the living space for ammonia and alkali enterprises in the eastern coastal areas will become smaller and smaller. If the development mode cannot be changed and the pollution discharge and stockpiling can not be reduced, the survival of ammonia and alkali enterprises will face serious constraints from environmental protection

reasons:

○ excessive pursuit of economic growth

○ investment for the purpose of occupying resources

○ overestimating their competitive advantages

○ imperfect production capacity exit mechanism

○ lack of inspection and reward and punishment means

reason analysis

(I) excessive pursuit of economic growth

in order to stimulate GDP and employment, some local government departments use administrative power to Formulas have been intervened by the corresponding investment behavior of the database industry, resulting in the blind launch of some projects that do not have the basic elements of resources, energy, market and so on; Some localities have not strictly implemented the catalogue for guiding industrial restructuring and the access conditions for soda ash industry, resulting in some projects that do not meet the requirements of industrial policies successfully passing the approval, filing and environmental impact assessment

(II) some enterprises aim to occupy resources

many enterprises cater to the local regulations that "if they want to obtain resources, they must build large projects locally" and invest locally for the purpose of occupying resources. After 2007, many soda ash projects are aimed at occupying coal, salt mines, salt lakes and other resources, seeking greater long-term interests

(III) some enterprises overestimate their competitive advantages

eastern enterprises think they are close to the market and ignore the problems of high energy prices and high financial costs; Western enterprises have overemphasized resource and cost advantages, ignoring problems such as long distance from the market, high transportation and sales costs, and tight transportation capacity. New enterprises think that they have resources, large scale, new equipment and technology, and strong competitive advantages. Although the capacity has been surplus, and although the old enterprises have low financial costs, close to the market, and have their inherent advantages, the winner in the brutal market competition remains to be seen. They are full of survival confidence in the market competition: "to die, it must not be me."

(IV) imperfect capacity exit mechanism

first, local governments are unwilling to exit enterprises for the sake of GDP, tax and employment; Second, in order to avoid bad debts and dead debts, banks try their best not to let enterprises exit; Third, there are many difficulties such as employee placement, and there is no policy support. Enterprises do not want to quit unless they have to

(V) the national competent authorities lack means of inspection, reward and punishment.

the industrial policies such as the catalogue for guiding industrial structure adjustment and the access conditions for soda ash industry issued by the national development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of industry and information technology are highly targeted, with clear and specific requirements. If they are carefully implemented, they will have an immediate effect in curbing the blind expansion of the industry and eliminating backward production capacity. However, although the policy is good, the supervision has not been implemented in place, resulting in a great discount on the effect of policy implementation

suggestions:

○ no approval of new projects within five years

○ implementation of admission announcement management for enterprises

○ establishment of exit mechanism

○ overall consideration of decentralization and regulatory functions

○ guiding enterprises to implement restructuring and integration

industry suggestions

(I) it is recommended not to approve and file new soda ash projects within five years

implement the relevant requirements of the guidance catalogue for industrial restructuring and the access conditions for soda industry, For new soda ash projects, banks will not provide loans

(II) implementation of admission announcement management for soda ash enterprises

due to the unclear status of the access conditions for soda ash industry in the industrial policy, the local government's executive power is not strong, and there are even cases of negative treatment and protection of illegal enterprises. Therefore, it is suggested that soda ash enterprises be included in the announcement management to implement the access conditions for soda ash industry and resolve the contradiction of overcapacity

(III) implement the issued laws and regulations, establish an exit mechanism, speed up the elimination of backward production capacity

inspect the energy consumption, environmental protection, quality and other aspects of soda ash enterprises. In accordance with the provisions of the access conditions for soda ash industry, the cleaner production standard for soda ash industry, and the energy consumption quota for unit product of soda ash, it is suggested that enterprises that do not meet the requirements should be promoted to exit by means of capacity replacement and government redemption, We will accelerate the elimination of backward production capacity

(IV) overall consideration of decentralization and supervision functions

on the premise of imperfect supervision, it is suggested that relevant national departments should unify the environmental impact assessment of new soda projects, the decentralization of project approval authority and the supervision in place to prevent excess

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